ptosis eyelid drooping Ptosis (drooping of eyelid) Classification and Plastic Surgery Lid Sculpture

There are many different types of eyelid drooping (ptosis) by Dr. Michael Bermant, MD plastic & cosmetic surgery.

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Ptosis is a drooping or sagging of a body part. Blepharoptosis is a drooping of an upper eyelid.

There are many different types of eyelid drooping. Here is one classification system.

Congenital ptosis

  • Simple congenital ptosis
    • weakness of levator muscle (lifts upper eyelid)
    • most cases are this type when patient born with this problem
    • most often sporadic but can be inherited
  • Congenital ptosis with weakness of superior rectus muscle
    • (the muscle that makes the eyeball look up)
    • about 1 in 20 cases have the added eye muscle weakness
  • Ptosis with blepharophimosis syndrome
    • dominant hereditary condition
    • see page for details
    • although some may unfairly label their appearance retarded they have normal intelligence
  • Synkinetic ptosis
    • involuntary motion of eyelid with attempted desired motion
    • like wires being crossed
    • Marcus-Gunn jaw winking ptosis
    • misdirected 3rd nerve ptosis

Acquired ptosis (classes overlap)

  • Neurogenic ptosis (from nerve problem)
    • can be from injury or disease
  • Myogenic ptosis
    • from muscle and attachments problems
    • most commonly from age thinning and detachment of muscle from upper eyelid
  • Traumatic ptosis
    • from trauma
  • Mechanical ptosis
    • from excess weight (like a growth on the eyelid)
    • from scar tissue


  • From lack support behind the upper eyelid
    • found in cases where the eye no longer pushes the eyelid in a normal position
  • From hypotropia
    • eyelid lowering from the other eye's muscles not working well
  • From dermatochalasis
    • thinning and stretching of upper eyelid skin
    • redundant upper eyelid skin

Back Eyelid Ptosis - droopy upper eyelids.Forward Eyelid Ptosis - droopy upper eyelids.


Other topics of interest:

Ptosis of the eyelid (dropping of the upper eyelid).
Upper eyelid ptosis and drooping eyelid.
Ptosis classification 
Muscle function and dysfunction in drooping eyelid problems.
Upper eyelid ptosis with frontalis muscle compensation.
Measuring eyelid function in eyelid ptosis.
Testing levator muscle for drooping eyelid
Congenital eyelid ptosis reconstructive surgery options. 
Recurrent congenital eyelid ptosis in a 26 year old black male.
Frontalis muscle compensation in drooping eyelid
Ptosis associated with paralyzed eyebrow muscle.
brow ptosis creating droopy eyelid
Ptosis associated with Blepharophimosis (congenital eyelid deformity).
eyelid ptosis
Blepharoplasty (Cosmetic surgery of the eyes)

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Eyelid surgery in Richmond Virginia

Ptosis of the eyelid (drooping of the upper eyelid)

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Recurrent ectropion after multiple cancer resections and then skin cancer excision with Mohs' chemosurgery and full thickness skin grafts.

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This page last updated on: April 21, 2012

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